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Math Products


GoFast® for ARM Cortex Thumb-2 and Keil


Fast Floating Point Library


Features

  • Fast
  • Reentrant
  • ROMable
  • Conforms to IEEE 754 Format
  • "Link and Go" compiler support for Keil
  • Includes complete source, test programs, project files, and startup code


Description

GoFast® for ARM Cortex Thumb-2 (e.g. Cortex-M3) was carefully designed for high performance operation in embedded applications and ease of use including “link and go” compatibility with the Keil C compiler. GoFast provides ROMable, reentrant IEEE and ANSI compatible Thumb-2 floating point support. It boosts the performance of an application’s math calculations or eliminates the need for a hardware floating-point coprocessor, in order to reduce product manufacturing cost. It is delivered with full assembly source code.

Currently GoFast is offered for the ARM and Thumb-2 instruction sets, not Thumb.

Functionality

GoFast ARM Cortex Thumb-2 offers the following reentrant floating point routines, for both single and double precision:

  • intrinsic basic operations + - * /
  • intrinsic conversions
  • sqrt
  • sin, cos, tan
  • asin, acos, atan, atan2
  • sinh, cosh, atanh
  • log, log10, exp, pow
  • floor, ceil, fabs
  • modf, fmod, frexp, ldexp


Floating Point Technology

GoFast is based on “Architecture Independent Technology” (AIT) and proven floating point algorithms that were developed for over a decade. The algorithms have been thoroughly tested using automated methods.

Conformance and Testing

The accuracy of each GoFast Floating Point Library is within one (least significant) bit for arithmetic functions and two bits for transcendental functions, in most cases. The IEEE 754 Floating Point Format defines special representations for underflow, overflow, and invalid operation. The GoFast routines use these formats and adhere to the IEEE 754 error handling procedures in all applicable cases. Quality assurance and testing procedures have assured proper product operation. In addition, each delivery includes target specific test programs assuring confidence of product operation.

Timings

The following table gives the times for all floating point operations, for GoFast and the Keil floating point library. The times, in microseconds, were measured using the indicated processor and evaluation board. The basic operations (add, subtract, multiply, divide, conversions, and comparisons) in the Keil C library are hand-coded and faster than those in GoFast, so the Keil versions are used instead. (If you only need these basic operations, you don’t need GoFast.) Thus, the routines linked are a mixture of both libraries, as indicated in bold below. GoFast provides the greatest benefit for the more complex operations, offering a 3x performance boost for some.

Microsecond Timings

Cortex-M3:    STM32F103VBT6, 72 MHz, Code Int Flash, Data Int SRAM

 
Double Precision
Single Precision
Function
GoFast
Keil
GoFast
Keil
add
4.999
3.319
3.544
2.177
subtract
5.253
3.499
3.804
2.191
rsubtract
5.215
3.545
3.687
2.269
divide
32.633
23.420
16.678
5.359
multiply
4.852
3.591
3.030
1.960
__neg
0.892
0.856
0.737
0.698
feq
2.825
1.702
2.056
1.631
fge
2.776
2.015
2.057
1.782
fgt
2.817
2.015
2.056
1.781
fle
2.816
2.015
2.058
1.783
flt
2.776
2.014
2.056
1.783
sqrt
63.381
25.165
33.019
10.135
fmod
21.741
21.106
15.991
10.641
ldexp
2.250
1.669
1.947
1.456
frexp
1.941
1.631
1.534
1.261
modf
7.509
2.798
4.469
1.891
fabs
0.892
2.815
0.739
2.272
sin
20.105
65.259
8.085
27.340
cos
19.803
64.705
8.065
27.070
tan
52.946
89.125
22.603
32.266
exp
24.529
93.500
7.627
60.275
log
58.292
93.048
27.410
31.838
log10
60.149
104.669
27.955
37.966
atan
65.979
106.982
29.084
32.249
atan2
93.719
126.000
42.579
37.238
acos
49.841
152.490
78.884
49.510
asin
48.958
152.162
69.763
49.310
cosh
50.582
118.385
21.914
70.045
sinh
51.495
120.997
22.690
72.083
tanh
53.940
114.241
33.671
64.646
pow
82.604
262.701
36.581
130.719
floor
2.350
1.503
1.627
1.046
ceil
2.430
1.503
1.705
1.044
long to fp
2.668
3.580
2.319
1.592
ulong to fp
2.272
3.992
1.805
1.592
fp to long
1.797
1.375
1.356
1.222
fp to ulong
1.797
1.090
1.355
0.977
longlong to fp
5.941
6.809
5.605
7.085
ulonglong to fp
5.596
6.840
5.264
7.075
fp to longlong
2.682
1.549
2.291
1.375
fp to ulonglong
2.664
1.281
2.281
1.146
sgl to dbl
1.649
1.281
-
-
dbl to sgl
2.079
1.359
-
-

Times were measured on STMicro STM3210B-EVAL board with Keil v4.13a.


GoFast is a registered trademark of Lantronix Inc. ARM and Thumb are registered trademarks of ARM Ltd.

12/7/10     back to top

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